Archive for the ‘Separated Bike Lanes’ Category

This blog is not meant to be there for advocacy.  It is meant to provide perspectives for significantly moving cycling traffic growth forward.  Once in a while, an article comes forth that may be more on the advocacy side and has content that needs sharing.  This is one of these.

©Image by City of Calgary, 2013An article was published on 2014-02-07 that needs visibility in North American cities that are struggling to refocus their cities for the future reality of transportation use, and specifically, trying to adjust to cycling infrastructure and separated bike lanes.

Right now, the media and even one of the local cycling advocacy organizations, Bike Calgary, is abuzz with comments on the Calgary City Centre Cycle Track Network being released and in public consultation this week and next.  From all the negativism and positivism being expressed, a business leader comes forth with positive comments on how the cycle track network will be a tool for his job in selling Calgary as a city to do business.

Quotes from Bruce Graham, President and CEO, Calgary Economic Development, from the Calgary Herald article, Cycle Tracks deserves to get some traction, 2014-02-07:

“Well, as the promotional agency tasked with attracting and retaining the best talent, as well as promoting our business and lifestyle advantages around the world, a cycle track network will help us do just that.”

Re commuter bike lanes: “And make no mistake, it is an investment.”

“This is a prime example of the kind of selling feature we use when telling Calgary’s story around the world.”

“Sixty-two per cent of recent transplants to Portland, Ore., said that the city’s bike friendliness was a factor in their decision to move there.”

Bruce Graham provides an excellent business marketing perspective of why Calgary needs an extensive network of separated cycling facilities within downtown, with connections to the business retailing streets and the very extensive rivers pathway systems.  We need to hear more from progressive minded city business people who look forward to the next 30 years and the expectation of another 1,000,000 people living in the Calgary Region.  If Calgary were to adopt the 50% workers, 50% residential ratio for downtown Calgary, then about 200,000 of this population growth should go to downtown.  With Downtown and the adjacent Beltline, Mission, Inglewood, Eau Claire, Edmonton Trail/Bridgeland retail areas easily accessible by cyclists, local retailers would enjoy the growth that other cities have shown along cycling facilities.

©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2013As the cordon count indicates, motorists are forsaking driving downtown and switching to transit, cycling, and walking instead.  Now, only 32% drive into downtown.  Now, next year, the C-Train will be adding 33% capacity as its trains go to 4 cars.  How many more drivers will be making the switch to transit or to combining transit with cycling on their commute? With each new cyclists commuting to work or coming downtown for shopping, one less car will be on downtown streets.  More street pavement will become available for reassignment for separated cycling facilities and sidewalks.

As Bruce points out, the business environment downtown will benefit with increased retail sales, lower operating costs, more productive employees, less workforce loss to sickness (both physical and stress).   What more, he and is organization will have another strong marketing tool to sell Calgary to business to locate here.

Bruce, thank you for the article.  It will benefit Calgary and other cities that have the same resistance to move towards a more organic, more liveable, progressive people place city and city core.

Calgary Cordon Count, 2013, Downtown Transportation Modal Split: Walking 8.5%, Cycling 2.5%, Transit 50.1%, Driving 32.1%, Passenger in Car 6.9% (Time Period 7:15 am to 8:15 am, Weekday May)

A Copy of the Article from the Calgary Herald:

Graham: Cycle track deserves to get some traction


By Bruce Graham, Calgary Herald February 7, 2014

©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2013Calgary’s proposed cycle track network has been creating quite a buzz around town lately and we wanted to weigh in on this issue. You may wonder why we, as Calgary’s leading economic development organization, care about a cycle track network for Calgary. Well, as the promotional agency tasked with attracting and retaining the best talent, as well as promoting our business and lifestyle advantages around the world, a cycle track network will help us do just that.

It may be less obvious than an increase in healthy lifestyle or taking tailpipes off the roads, but an inner city cycle track network can boost business. In Colorado, cycling brought more than $1 billion to the state’s local economy, and in New York, after the installation of a protected bike lane, retail sales increased by as much as 49 per cent compared to a three per cent increase in sales citywide during the same period.

When San Francisco optimized Valencia Street for cyclists and pedestrians, nearly 40 per cent of merchants reported increased sales and 60 per cent reported more area residents shopping locally due to reduced travel time and convenience. Travelling by bike encourages more frequent stops than travelling by car; a study of Toronto merchants revealed that patrons arriving by foot and bicycle visited the most often and spent the most money per month.

It goes without saying that parking the car and jumping on your Trek is good for your health, but it’s also good for the health of the community. Business owners would be interested in a study done by the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, which found that cycling reduced employee absenteeism — specifically, the employees who cycled to work regularly missed less work, on average more than one day per year less than colleagues who didn’t. And a Minnesota company that encouraged its employees to bike to work saved $170,000 in health care over three years and $301,000 through increased employee productivity every year.

And then there’s the social reputation factor: The “I didn’t know the city built on energy invested in commuter bike lanes.” And make no mistake, it is an investment. This is a prime example of the kind of selling feature we use when telling Calgary’s story around the world. People want to live in a city that invests in making the lives of its citizens better. Sixty-two per cent of recent transplants to Portland, Ore., said that the city’s bike friendliness was a factor in their decision to move there. By 2018, Calgary’s population is expected to grow by more than 150,000 people. We’d love to add the cycle track network to our people-attraction tool kit before we see tens of thousands of new cars added to our morning commute.

The major benefit of dedicated bike lanes is they help pedestrians, motorists, transit users and cyclists coexist safely. Even in Calgary’s harshest weather, you’ll see many diehard cyclists making their way to work, and these numbers would increase if we made their commute safer. After New York City installed their first protected bike lane (the first in the U.S.), they saw a reduction in injuries to all street users by 58 per cent. Calgary drivers will be the first to say that the unpredictability of cyclists sharing the narrow downtown roadways makes them nervous for the safety of the cyclists and themselves. A cycle track network in Calgary gives commuters a reliable alternative to driving, while ensuring the well-being of both cyclists and motorists.

©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2013Calgary is already well suited to adopting a cycle track network and here’s why. With the most expensive parking in Canada, our citizens have already shown us they would happily utilize this healthy and fun mode of transportation.

The first leg of the cycle track network runs on 7th Street S.W., and over the course of a year (2012-2013), the number of bikes quadrupled per day. Pedestrians were happier too, as the number of cyclists riding on the sidewalk went down by 25 per cent. At 700 kilometres, Calgary has the longest paved urban pathway system on the continent. With the addition of a downtown cycle track (and Calgary Transit’s recent announcement that all new buses will have bike racks), commuters can safely and efficiently travel from their homes in any quadrant of the city into the core. Calgarians may be surprised (and hopefully delighted) to learn that over the past five years, a multitude of downtown building owners have added up to 2,000 bike parking stalls in their buildings, telling their tenants and their employees they support their desire to embrace diverse transportation options.

We realize adoption will take time and people want to be involved in the process to understand where the proposed network will go and how it impacts them. We encourage Calgarians looking for more information on the cycle track network, to stop by the CORE Shopping Centre, Plus-15 level, by Holt Renfrew, this Monday to Friday from 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. to talk to the cycle track network team.

Bruce Graham is president and CEO of Calgary Economic Development.

© Copyright (c) The Calgary Herald


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©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2013“2014-02-05:  Engaging both new and seasoned cyclists of all ages, as well as those who want to bike but may not feel comfortable, is what the city centre cycle track network is all about, according to Ryan Murray, a spokesperson with the City of Calgary.

“The cycle tracks we’re proposing, they’re really built for everyone. We’re not just looking for people who have a bike in their garage now,” he said.

“With cycle tracks, it’s a new way of thinking about transportation in Calgary and it’s an important way to think about transportation in Calgary. We want to offer that choice that doesn’t exist now . . . Cycle tracks are built for people to use who are eight to 80. It’s really transportation for all.”

Read more …..

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the Thoughts of Separated Bike Lanes on a City Street,

Brings out the Emotions of Motorists and Cyclists

The Dialogue; Proposal for separated bike lanes (SBL) on 7th St. SW, Calgary AB

Image courtesy of the City of Calgary

Image courtesy of the City of Calgary

Reaction to Proposals for Separated Bike Lanes (SBL)

It is interesting to observe the dialogue from city politicians, staff, the public (both motorists and cyclists), and from the media when there is any movement to propose installation of separated bike lanes.

The Motorists

Motorists tend to express their desire towards where the status quo is the best policy.  After all, they pay directly for the investment in roadways and their maintenance, not the pedestrians nor the cyclists.  The fact that these motorists may live in other suburban communities and drive to work on the candidate streets for separated bike lanes do not distract them from coming forth with strong objections.  Desire for having a vibrant, liveable, sustainable and green city where air pollution from cars is reduced seems to leave their thinking process and emotions takes over.  More on this later.

The Cyclists

Now, cyclists are not a homogenous group and come out quite vocal, as well as motorists, for their favourite solutions.  In the dialogue, the best solutions for growing cycling traffic seem to leave their thinking process, as well.  Considerations do not seem to come into the debate for what it will take in infrastructure designs to persuade motorists that they should leave their cars at home and cycle instead.  Considerations do not come into their dialogue for what will it take in cycling infrastructure designs to persuade parents with children of ages of preschool, primary school, or young teenagers to let these children cycle with or without their parents, as is the case.

The Media

To frequently, the media seems to be too interested in firing up some debate to sell papers, airtime, or ad space.  So, if they sense that a controversy can be started, they are too willing to go for it.

Read the full text of this article…

Montreal QC, Berri St Separated Bike Lanes Curb and Post Separation ©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2013

Montreal QC, Berri St
Separated Bike Lanes
Curb and Post Separation
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2013

Vancouver, Hornby St Separated Bike Lanes ©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2013

Vancouver, Hornby St
Separated Bike Lanes
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2013

Vancouver, Carrall Greenway Separated Bike Lanes Sections of Cycle Tracks and Bike Paths on Road Shoulder ©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2013

Vancouver, Carrall Greenway
Separated Bike Lanes
Sections of Cycle Tracks
and Bike Paths on Road Shoulder
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2013

©H-JEH Becker, Velo.Urbanism, Third Wave Cycling Group Inc., 2013

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If you wish to expand the size of any image, then click on the image.


CycloTouring in California


For promoting cycling touring, information on closed sections of interstate and state highways needs to be easily accessible on the Internet.  Adventure Cycling maps do provide routes through the state and are useful, if you are going in the direction set out and if you have the time and energy for the defined routes.

CycloTouring in California, at this time, tends to be more for long distance cyclists who are either confident in cycling in fast moving traffic, are competent cyclists, or lean towards risk-taking. Cycling of families with children, as is frequently seen in Europe, would, most likely, be more restricted to some regions in the state that have good cycling infrastructure and multi-kilometres of bike trails. CycloTouring as a combined mobility trip with the Californian and Amtrak train systems is simple and provides opportunities for regional touring. Just take a train to a designation and start the trip from there and then take the train back. Train one way and return by cycling provides another opportunity to extend the trip in different parts of the state. With the trains providing bike space without the need for boxing bikes expands the opportunities for cyclotouring. The only exception is Amtrak’s Coastal Starlight train, which still requires boxing of bicycles. Hope this changes in the near future. How Amtrak’s bus system fits into this type of touring is uncertain to me as I have received different information when the question was asked. Also, it seems uncertain if a bike would be taken when you show up for a bus. Would suggest that bike racks on front and on the back of these buses, i.e. the Swiss method, would increase cyclotourists using these buses. (Combined mobility cyclotouring trips will be the subject of a future blog article)

Realistically, the only provincial / state entity in North America that has comparable European style cyclotouring capacity, which appeals to families and children is the Province of Quebec with its famous La Route Verté network and the province’s capacity for combined mobility with the intercity transportation providers (trains, buses).

California is a frustrating state to cycle in.  Actually, there was enough frustration during the trip where I did not want to cycle to another city and just wanted to get out of the state.  Discouraging was the number of occurrences where interstate and other highways were closed to cyclists along my desired route path.   This did not happen in other western states.

Yes, one could go way out of the desired direction to find highways to cycle on.  Many times these highway routings were not direct to the desired target city for that night.  It would have taken much longer to reach my final destination this way.

Replacing maps with GPS-based cycling computer.
Garmin Edge 800
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

Trip planning for the next day, setting up the day course on my Garmin BaseCamp computer mapping software, and then downloading the information onto the Garmin 800 GPS took much longer than it did in other states.  Sometimes it took an extra hour.

The lack of readily availability of information on which section of interstate and state highways were closed to cyclists caused trip planning to be time consuming.


The dreaded sign on interstate and state highways. Time to get off. The highway not designed for cycling as a mode of transportation.
Redding CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

On one day, an unexpected cycling prohibited sign on a state highway forced rerouting and change of destination for the night half way through that day’s trip when uncancellable motel reservations were already made in another city 30 kilometres farther away.  This happened on a Saturday of a busy weekend, which drew many tourists to this area.  Hotels and motels were filled up.  Finally, an accommodation was found late in the day at the edge of that city.  As it turned out, it was the last room available in the motel.  A bit of luck, at least.


There was no advance warning signs that this would occur.  There were no cycling bypass route or signs.  The only alternative was to cycle 20 kilometres north and then another 20 kilometres west to meet up with a highway that would take me to my intended destination.  Now, the question became “Is the highway to the motel open for cycling?”  Not wanting to take that risk, the decision was to stay in the city with the prohibition sign and do a major reroute of the trip bypassing some places that I really wanted to cycle through.

A few days later I was cycling on a state highway when that highway split into two highways.  There was one of those cycling prohibited signs for the highway that I wanted to take.  Joyfully, I noticed a bike route sign leading to the other highway.  So I took it expecting that at some point I wild be directed back to the highway that I wanted to take.  After an hour of cycling I realized that would not happen.  Fortunately, a person at a service station could direct me back to the highway that I wanted to be on by using some local roads.  Confidence was now lost that I could depend on highways to be open for cycling along my intended route.

So, this is cycling in California!


Trip Planning, Finding Information on Highway Cycling


The Internet was a frustrating place to find the needed information.  Maps to identify open roads for cycling did not seem to exist.  There was conflicting and sometimes incorrect information on blogs.

CDOT District 2 Cycling Guide providing information on interstate and state highways open and closed to cyclists.
State of California

There was an exception and that was District 2 of the Californian Department of Transportation, a northern district. 


This district had produced a very effective and informative document for cycling there (http://www.dot.ca.gov/dist2/pdf/bikeguide.pdf).  Open and closed highways to cyclists were identified on maps.  For closed sections, alternate routings were mapped out.  Other useful information was provided.   Internet search did not reveal the existence of such a document for the other districts in California.  It certainly is needed.


Bike Routes Parallel to Highways.


Sometimes by chance, parallel bike trails were come upon through Internet searches, by chance, or avoiding restricted sections of highways.   Some of these trails were well marked with direction and destination signs.  Others were not.  Sometimes these routes used local and rural roads.  Some sections would have bike lanes and paved cycleable shoulders.  Some of the roads were shared roads, usually with a low amount of motorized traffic.  For the most part, bike lanes or cycleable paved shoulders were available on these roads.

Pacific Coast Bike Trail between Santa Cruz and Monterey CA. The well signed trail travels along county roads with sections of bike lanes, paved cycleable shoulders, and trails.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

Pacific Coast Bike Trail between Santa Cruz and Monterey CA. The well signed trail travels along county roads with sections of bike lanes, paved cycleable shoulders, and trails.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012


Bike paths next to a highway were frequently encountered as an entry to cities, while some started before city limits, up to 20 and 30 kilometres.  Some examples included Monterey with a path starting 30 kilometres before the city limit and Santa Cruz with a bike path starting at city limit.

As some municipalities are approached, the adventure of entering is much more comfortable as bike trails branch of state highways. For some municipalities, the experience of leaving is also enhanced with bike trails.
Entering Santa Barbara CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

As some municipalities are approached, the adventure of entering is much more comfortable as bike trails branch of state highways. For some municipalities, the experience of leaving is also enhanced with bike trails.
Entering Santa Maria CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

As some municipalities are approached, the adventure of entering is much more comfortable as bike trails branch of state highways. For some municipalities, the experience of leaving is also enhanced with bike trails.
Entering Monterey CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

As some municipalities are approached, the adventure of entering is much more comfortable as bike trails branch of state highways. For some municipalities, the experience of leaving is also enhanced with bike trails.
Entering Monterey CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

As some municipalities are approached, the adventure of entering is much more comfortable with bike trails branching off state highways. For some municipalities, the experience of leaving is also enhanced with bike trails.
Leaving Fairfield CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012


Cycling Facilities in Urban and Rural Environment


As mentioned in a previous blog, the positive effects can be continuously seen while cycling in California of federal road programs which requires cycling facilities as part of the funding for new and rebuilt roads.  One continuously comes on these facilities in municipalities from the smallest to larger cities as well as on rural roads from county roads to state highways.  It is rare to cycle in any municipality that is without any bike lanes or trails.

Rural California, cycling made more pleasant with bike lanes or cycle able paved shoulders.
Half Moon Bay CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

Rural California, cycling made more pleasant with bike lanes or cycle able paved shoulders.
Corning CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012


Cities with a Network of Cycling Facilities


Cycling cities. Separated bike lanes in downtown waterfront area supporting retail.
San Francisco CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

When discussion turns to cycling cities in the US, normally Portland, as a US large cycling city leader, Seattle (3.5%), and San Francisco (3.5%) as an upcoming cycling city, are mentioned.  Sometimes the City of Davis is mentioned with its 22% cycling mode share. There the discussion tends to end.


On this trip there were other medium size cities that should be recognized for their work towards building of a cycling network and for developing a sizeable cycling mode share. Municipalities passed through that have made an effort towards providing cycling facilities include Fairfield (0.2%), Vallejo (0.2%), Monterey, Avila Beach, and Santa Maria (0.5%).

Special mention goes to the efforts put out by the following cities: Santa Cruz (cycling mode share 9%, many innovative cycling features), San Luis Obispo (7%), and Santa Barbara (6.4%).

Cycling cities. Separated bike lanes making the commute more pleasant.
Santa Cruz CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

Cycling cities. Downtown bike parking on streets. Cyclists are good customers for retailers.
Santa Cruz CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

Cycling cities. Mass bicycle parking contributing to attainability of higher education. An indicator of the attraction of cycling for transportation when the environment is supportive.
Santa Barbara CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

Cycling cities. Cyclists are good customers for retailers.
San Luis Obispo CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012

Cycling cities. Cyclists are good customers for retailers.
San Luis Obispo CA.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker, 2012


Source of cycling mode share to work: League of American Cyclists, 2010 data on bicycle commute mode share (based on the US Census American Community Survey with data on 375 cities over 60,000 population).

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Banff Legacy Trail – Part 4


© H-JEH (Jack) Becker, Third Wave Cycling Group Inc. 2007-2012, Velo.Urbanism, cycling planning, policy, and social marketing consultant, 20 year advocate for balanced transportation modes within cities focusing on cycling and transit.

The comments in this article come from a touring and commuter cyclist where the bicycle and combined mobility with cycling are the first choices of transportation.  The comments reflect the experience and observations gained while cyclotouring where now the 100,000 kilometres mark is being approached on trips 4 days and longer up to 11 months.  In addition, many thousands of kilometres have been cycled on weekend exploring trips and on day tripping.  These trips may be done solely by cycling or combined with other modes of travel including air, trains, buses, ferries, and on some occasions, including cars. 

As this blog is being posted, the writer is on a two and a half month cyclotouring trip.  A couple of days ago, a 2,025 metres high mountain pass was traversed, a personal high, followed by a modest 1,225 metres pass today with a 1,400 metres pass coming up in two days.

This year, the 21-year-old Miyata 1000 touring bicycle was retired for one with disk brakes for cycling through mountain ranges, a Salsa Fargo 2 bicycle.  A Dahon touring folding bicycle is usually used when planes, trains, buses, and ferries or European hotel elevators are involved on trips.


Some Thoughts on the Design of the Banff Legacy Trail


Arriving in Canmore by bus with bicycle.©Photograph by H-JEH Becker
As mentioned in an earlier blog, this bike path is excellent in drawing people to come and cycle in the wilderness.  The path alignment and design is attracting cyclists who used to cycle on the paved shoulders of the highway.  The path also draws tourist staying at Canmore or Banff to rent bicycles and use the trail.  The path also draws families from Southern Alberta to spend a day cycling here.

Even good bicycle paths can attract comments and suggestions for improvements and so here are mine.


1 – Wayfinding


Connecting to Trail

Banff trailhead at the town bus loop.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

On trips, cyclists want to know where they are, where they should go next, and how afar they need to go.   To break the routine of long trips, information on highlights along the route and on the lands being traversed is always welcome.


Connecting to the Trail – Canmore

On approaching Canmore either from Trans-Canada Highway #1 or from my preferred approach on Highway #1 A, finding the Banff Legacy Trail is not very evident.  Canmore has two off-road bike routes of which neither is identified on the approaching highways.  On these routes, there are no signs to connect to the Legacy Trail.  There are no maps signs to provide direction.  There is no signage such as those that we are used to in Europe.  There is no cycling by numbers or knooppuntroutes (node points) to lead you to the trail.

So, finding the Canmore bike routes is a matter of searching or good judgment.  One bike path parallels the highway while the bike trail is adjacent to the railway track in town.  How to find them?  Canmore can do much to improve wayfinding.


Connecting to the Trail – Harvey Heights

Southbound off ramp from the Trans-Canda Highway with provision for contra-flow cycling to the Banff Legacy Trail. No signage or map advising cyclists to use ramp to connect to trail. Which side to ramp to use – Stay left of yellow line?
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker


Southbound off ramp from the Trans-Canda Highway with provision for contra-flow cycling to the Banff Legacy Trail. No signage or map advising cyclists to use ramp to connect to trail. Which side to ramp to use – Stay left of white edge line?
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker




Coming to the northern end of a bike path along the Harvey Heights and Highway #1 roads, you are left with choice and no help.  There are no maps to direct you to the Banff Legacy Trail.  There are no signs.  So, proceed onto Highway #1 northbound, proceed to the park gates, and then cross over the many traffic lanes to reach the trail?  So instead, cycle contra-flow on the southbound off-ramp leading to the Harvey Heights Road.  Who would do that?  Well, the people who have found direction in other places and are aware that this is the way to go.  The ramp has a white line on the right side and a yellow line on the other side.  So, which side to take?  Which side should one cycle in the contra-flow direction?

Then as the ramp approaches the highway, there are no signs indicating that there is two-way cycling on the shoulder for either the cyclists or the motorists.

Contra-flow cycling on the Trans-Canada Highway with no awareness signs for motorists or cyclists.©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Contra-flow cycling on the southbound Trans-Canada Highway lanes connecting to the Banff Legacy Trail. No awareness signage advising cyclists and motorists of the contra-flow cycling.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker







Then there is the entrance to the Legacy Trail.  Where is the signage to indicate to cyclists to descend down the small drop to the left and then turn right onto the trail?

There is a fantastic opportunity to simplify finding the trail and make infrequent and other cyclists more comfortable and secure on finding their way.


On the Way – Lake Minnewanka


A few kilometres from Banff there is a cutoff to Lake Minnewanka.  Wayfinding would be very beneficial at this junction for highlighting cycling options the roads to Lake Minnewanka and Two Jacks Lake provide.  For information and for generating more cycling interest and traffic, wayfinding signage would be a good addition to the trail.

The Lake Minnewanka area provides plenty of choice for cyclists from just cycling the road to wandering down one of the trails, to taking a tourist boat on the long lake, to camping on one of the many sites, to enjoy watching wildlife grazing on the roadside or walking on the trails.

Connecting to the Trail – Banff


Arriving at Banff, the trail map indicates a route through the town and then connecting to the Bow Valley Parkway.  None of this is evident at the trailhead or on the roads identified on the map.  Wayfinding, map signs, bike route signs, and street marking (bike lanes, sharrows, white edge lines) would provide clear direction for cyclists and, at the same time, highlight to motorists of the presence of cyclists on the roads.

Wayfinding and signage should ensure that cyclists knows where cyclists are geographically at any time, that cyclists are heading in their desired directions, that cyclists are aware of any conditions ahead that requires special attention, and that cyclists becomes aware of any special interest along routes.  Cyclists should never be confused, hesitate, or uncertain as to where one should be cycling.  Road signs should provide destination, direction, distance, travel time, information, and warnings in a timely manner.

Wayfinding should be focused on potential cyclists especially those with high desire for risk aversion and limited propensity for cycling.  Wayfinding should appeal and be understandable to young children.  Wayfinding should also be supportive of seniors cycling, especially readable by senior cyclists with reducing eyesight.  Wayfinding should be readable far enough away to make a decision and take corrective action.  Wayfinding should be supportive of a country changing in cultural background with a large new landed immigrant status. Wayfinding should pass the test of supporting a significant growth in cycling traffic.

A comprehensive set of road signage should heighten cyclists’ comfort on the road and encourage people to cycle as a means of transportation.   Besides supporting growth of cycling, local businesses along a trail, their towns and their inhabitants will also benefit.


2 – Trail Alignment

Images – Topography and Terrain Alignment

On the way to Banff
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Water tower at an electric power dam in the distance.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

©Photograph by H-JEH Becker










It is all about aligning a trail to maximize the attraction to cyclists, including those who cycle today and those who can be induced to cycle, thus maximize the cycling traffic volumes.  The market for this trail includes Banff to Canmore commuters, visitors to the park, and day-trippers from Calgary and other municipalities within a day driving distance.

The Legacy Trail seems to be laid out sensitive to the topography and the terrain adjacent to the highway.  Unlike the roadway where the terrain was changed to accommodate the highway, the trail is ribboned up and down the terrain, in between and round trees, and squeezed in between adjacent rivers and the road.

From a cyclotouring perspective, the trail alignment provides a variety of experiences, including trains passing by.

The trail alignment results in a variety of separations with distances from as little as a half metre to a distance where car traffic becomes a hum.  Forms of separation come from simple techniques such as gravel or grass, vertical elevation, and physical barriers, such as concrete barriers.  Over bridges, wind protection for cyclists is provided by high barriers.

Images – Separation – horizontal, vertical, physical, virtual, distance from traffic lanes.

Metre separation
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Bridge providing wind break for cyclists.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Trail wanders into a bush. Vertical and horizontal separation
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Two metres plus physical separation with concrete barriers.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Narrow separation with physical barriers.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

A metre separation with a physical barrier.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Physical separation.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

A wider separation – horizontal and vertical, diminishing the effects of air and noise pollution and wind effect from fast travelling trucks and buses. ©Photograph by H-JEH Becker
















Of course, the forms of separation along the Banff Legacy Trail have appeal to potential users of this trail.  Observing cycling traffic, it is very apparent that parents are quite willing to let young children, some just able to be on bicycles or tricycles, cycle freely in front of them.

Trail design should focus on the impact that the trail will have in encouraging people to cycle between destination rather than driving, especially in parks designed to keep the lands natural.

Alignment of trails need to consider air and noise pollution on cyclists, as well as, the effect of winds and drafts from vehicles on keeping cyclists comfortable and secure.  More later on this.


3 – Trail Amenities – CycloTourists Convenience – facilities

Time for a convenience stop.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Time to relax and enjoy the mountains.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

The trail has a convenience stop approximately near the middle, which is much appreciated.  What about at each end?  Designing a trail for seniors should consider facilities about every half hour of cycling especially for the first hour and a half into a trip.


4 – Trail Traffic Capacity – width


©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Designing roads for cars and trucks, future volume projections are taken into consideration.  The same methodology does not seem to be used by professionals when designing cycling facilities.  Even the width of this facility is not sufficient and running out of capacity after a year of operation, considering the needs of the cyclists using the trail and people walking.


5 – Trail Grade


The thrill of a fast descent. What about icy days?
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Maybe a bridge bypass would attract the risk averts.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

For some, cycling up the steep incline is good exercise. For others, pushing a bike up is more the likely case. What about the young children on bicycles? What about parents pulling children trailers? An alternative on the embankment at a moderate grade would be appealing to many.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Cyclists are sensitive to road grade, especially parts of the market made up of infrequent or potentially new cyclists and tourists wanting a local experience.  Considering their body conditioning for cycling and hill climbing, this cycling market place is sensitive to the amount of energy required to cycle trails.  Both grade and pavement of a trail become important considerations. Experience with cycling growth in the Netherlands and the appeal of the Le Petit Train du Nord trail in Quebec would indicate the attractiveness of low grades peaking at 3% or 4%.

Considering that this trail is intended to appeal to families with small children, park users, and tourists, it is quite difficult to understand the trail alignment just after the Banff Park Gate at the Canmore end.  Suddenly, the trail does an s-curve as it climbs at a 12% grade.  Who expects children and infrequent cyclists to make this climb when more seasoned and conditioned cyclists get off their bikes and walk the last few metres?

Instead, the trail should have been aliened at a 3% or 4% grade along the road embankment.  Leave the steep climb alignment for those who want that type of experience and have a moderate graded trail option for 6-year-old children on bicycles or for parents pulling their children in trailers.

Trail Surfacing

This trail is surfaced by asphalt extending the season that the trail can be used.  Water on gravel trails, both from rain and winter precipitation, will encourage people to stay on the neighbouring highway shoulders and discourage people who cycle less frequently from using the trail.


6 – Pollution Abatement for Cyclists


Lessening the impact of motor vehicle pollution on cyclists – separation.
©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

©Photograph by H-JEH Becker




Pollution Envelope – Car and Truck Emissions – Air and Greenhouse Gases


Cars and trucks pollution emissions dissipate with distance.  In essence, there is a pollution envelope around these vehicles.  The farther that cyclists are removed from the source of pollution, the less impact on them.  Studies have been done to start defining these envelopes.  More studies are needed before the envelopes are well enough defined for designing the alignment of cycling facilities, which minimize impact on cyclists.  From the research that has been done, we know that bike paths two metres away from traffic lanes is better than one metre.  Three and more metres are of course better than one or two.


Noise Pollution Effect on Cyclists’


On a trip from Vancouver to Chicago with a colleague I became aware of the severe impact that noise pollution can have on people.  Apparently, as one ages the effect becomes greater.  While the noise pollution envelope is not well defined for alignment of cycling facilities, the greater the distance between traffic lanes and cyclists, the more appeal the facilities will have to draw cyclists.


Wind Effect


Getting caught in the draft of a fast moving truck or bus can be unnerving for less experienced cyclists and even the more risk-taking.  Nothing like having to steer a bicycle into the direction of buses or trucks to compensate for draft after these vehicles pass and strong crosswinds takes hold of cyclists going down a steep grade at fast speed or cycling on more level terrain.  Quite a distractor for the uncommitted cyclists.

Wind effects of moving vehicles including buses and large trucks has been researched and documented.  Location of cycling facilities, such as this trail, need to consider the wind envelopes under different wind situations, including crosswinds.  For simple winds, a minimum separation of two metres should be provided.  For crosswinds the separation should increase or double, at least.


7 – Electrical Gates


©Photograph by H-JEH Becker

Keeping wildlife off the highway has been a preoccupation of this park for the last decade or two while still facilitating migration from one side of the highway to the other.  So, with this trail Canada Parks had to come up with a scheme to keep wildlife off the trail while still allowing easy passage of cyclists and walkers.  For this purpose, electrical gates were installed at two locations.  Walkers’ passage is through gates that they open manually.  Cyclists are greeted with signs indicating that they should not stop on electrical pads lying on the asphalt surface at gates that are kept open for their passage.  The system seems to work well as cyclists just need to slow down through the gates.

At the Lake Minnewanka cutoff, the locations of the gates are in a dip that affects two-way flow.  Gates at the top of the dip would have been more efficient from a cycling perspective.  The rational for their current location is not known.



The Banff Legacy Trail – Part 5, “An Afterthought” National Park of Canada, Province of Alberta


This blog will be presented in five parts and released a week apart starting with 2012-08-09. 

The next blog will give an afterthought on the attraction of bike paths (on rural highways) and on bike trails, rather than bike lanes or wide shoulders for cycling on highways.

https://thirdwavecyclingblog.wordpress.com/2012/08/08/ banff-legacy-trail-t…y-trail-part-5


Read the blog from the beginning:


The Banff Legacy Trail, Banff National Park of Canada, Province of Alberta



Links – Banff Legacy Trail




http://actionplan.gc.ca/initiatives/eng/index.asp?mode=8&imode=7&initiativeid=129&id=4836 (parallels the Trans Canada Highway #1 through the Banff National Park)  http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/ab/banff/index.aspx


Other Links


Knooppuntroutes – http://www.cycletourer.co.uk/cycletouring/holland.shtml

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The City of Vancouver has released an initial draft of its Transportation 2040 Plan for public consideration. Within the plan, the city spells out its transportation mode priority for the next 30 years and its target mode share.

At the recent Velo-city Global 2012 Conference on cycling, international experts called the city’s cycling component of the plan and its target as too slow and not enough. Experts from around the world sensed that the next growth in cycling and attracting motorists to use cycling for transportation will come from physically separated bike lanes and from combined mobility trips of cycling and transit.

Cycling growth in the City of Vancouver has been very slow. From 1991, the mode share has climbed from 1.3% to 3.8% or 0.114% per year while Copenhagen has increased cycling by 4% in two years and Seville has increased it by 4.5% in 5 years.

The City is proposing that the target cycling mode share for the next 30 years should show growth of 3.2% from the current 3.8% level to 7%. With this target the growth rate will continue to remain slow at 0.11% per year. This growth rate is certainly not at a pace of a world-class green city. This growth is more like that of a follower city. One Transportation Planning Manager was trying to placate an audience at a consultation session by stating that the City normally reaches targets very early in its transportation plans lifecycle. Well, the question may be asked to the value of a target if it can be easily met rather than be challenging for city staff and the public and also be a signal of change in how we travel.

Transportation Plan 2040, City of Vancouver, June, 2012


The city wants to be the greenest city in the world and has committed to achieving the Kyoto protocol calling for reduction in greenhouse gases to 6% less than the 1990 level. Basically, the Kyoto commitment means that all trips originating from population growth must be by active transportation modes, not by car.

Future cycling growth will need to come from those who drive today. The easy growth has been realized. Now is the time to shift into social marketing of cycling. Social marketing will not be effective unless a robust and highly desirable cycling infrastructure is in place. With the city’s desires and with the strong commitment from the public to the greenest city and Kyoto goals, it might be appropriate to adopt more challenging transportation mode share.

An aggressive set of transportation mode share targets will contribute towards this city to becoming a world-class green city, reducing air and noise pollution, helping improve individual health, and reducing the associated health care costs. Guided by the City’s gains in reduction of car trips within the downtown core and accomplishments of other cities in reducing driving and increasing cycling, consideration should be given to adopting aggressive targets for the 2040 transportation mode shares. Transportation mode share is usually defined by driving, transit, walking, cycling, and by others. For more effective direction of future efforts, a more detailed set of targets may be appropriate. Also, the current set of targets understates the use of each mode, as combined trips are not accounted fully in the statistics.

The accomplishments of other cycling-active cities and of the City of Vancouver in the downtown core would suggest a set of appropriate transportation mode share targets of:

  • Walking                             17%

Walking to transit stops >450 metres                      3%

  • Cycling                                20%
  • Transit                                20%
  • Combined Mobility               15%

Transit and Cycling – Personal bicycle                      7%
Transit and Cycling – Public Bike Share System       3%
Driving and Cycling – Personal Bicycle                     4%
Driving and Cycling – Public Bike Share System       1%

  • Car                                     27%

Driver                                                                   24%
Passenger                                                               3%

  • Other                                   1%

With this set of mode share targets, cycling would be involved in 35% of all trips, transit in 30%, and car trips in 32%.

With aggressive targets, staff has clear direction on strategies and speed of implementation for realizing the next transportation plan.

Some comments on the City of Vancouver’s initial draft of its Transportation 2040 Plan will be published on August 26, 2012. 

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H-JEH (Jack) Becker
Third Wave Cycling Group Inc., 2012-05-13

A recent radio interview highlighted the timeliness for Calgarians to have a comprehensive dialogue on separated bike lanes (SBL), especially local cycling advocates and those interested in better cycling facilities. The dialogue should start with the question of why have SBL and then continue into concepts and designs, fit into local streetscape and urban form.  Then the dialogue must include how SBL contributes to local business and to the city as a whole.

Separated bike lanes have been shown to be successful in instigating a shift from driving to cycling. It is a tool that comes in many configurations of designs and fit into local urban form. The type chosen has a direct impact on the degree of local acceptance and of success in increasing cycling.

So, what types of separated bike lanes do Calgarians want? Some of the dialogue should cover

  • Cycling traffic capacity

How wide should the separated bike lanes be?  Well, first it should be established what the objectives for the SBL should be.  Is it for the convenience of current cyclists?  Is it to provide capacity to meet natural cycling traffic growth or the city’s future cycling mode share targets?  Is it part of a city reshaping itself into a large city or world-class city form, instead of a sprawling metropolis?  What current barriers are hindering cycling growth that could be accommodated with SBL?  What human characteristic could be designed into SBL to cause significant growth?

Acceptance of SBL is greater by cyclists and by potential cyclists if they could see efficient trip time.  One of the factors, capacity to pass slower cyclists, is key.  The next big step into cycling growth is to move away from solitary cycling to accommodating social cycling of two people side-by-side deep into discussion.  Intersection passage time is also key.

  • Forms of separation

Generally, separated bike lanes comes in various forms of separation from vertical to horizontal, at general traffic lane level, on sidewalk elevation, outside of road right-of-ways, etc.  Separation comes in many forms from virtual where drivers’ observance of painted lines provides the separation to physical through various forms of barriers that will have negative effect on cars if drivers were not to observe the barriers.

Physical separation can be provided at various cost levels from minimal to sophisticated separation designs that fits well into urban and streetscape forms.

Observations of various forms of SBL in cities within Europe and North America indicate the need for physical separation where cars, trucks, and motorcycles are prevented from entering into bike lanes.

With virtual separation (painted lines or buffers) and half curb height separation (Copenhagen style), it is only driver decency that causes the bike lanes not to be used for passing motorized vehicles stopped for a turn, overtaken a slower vehicle, or parking, especially by delivery vehicles. Even car entry into bike lanes needs to be prevented for such bike lanes not to become parking lanes.  However, the form of separation should allow police and other emergency vehicles to use the lanes to efficiently get by street traffic.  This also tends to encourage width of bike lanes to accommodate a police vehicle and a cyclist.

  • Two-way bike lanes versus one way

A dialogue on this subject usually gets around to selection of one-way separated bike lanes on the same or adjacent streets to the use of two-way bike lanes.  There are many arguments that can be made for either solution that would better fit the needs of cyclists, motorists on the streets, local businesses, and urban and streetscape form.

Two-way separated bike lanes are self-levellers of traffic accommodating cycling traffic jams and supporting social cycling.  Bringing together into one space cyclists going both ways, the presence of cyclists on the road is much more evident to motorists, a bit of a marketing tool.  Motorists will see the lanes actually being used and become more aware that their driving style needs to adjust accordingly.  Another important benefit is the reduction of potential cross traffic of cyclists and motorists, limiting that to one side of a street.

  • Which side of road

One-Way Bike Lanes

Should two one-way bike lanes be located on one road, no matter if one of the lanes is contraflow or be placed on two neighbouring roads?

Two-Way Bike Lanes

Location of two-way bike lanes should recognize night cycling and the effect of car headlights shining into cyclists’ eyes with overhead lights often being too weak in intensity to overcome cyclists’ blindness or blocked out by tree leaves making sidewalk curbs or separation barriers difficult to be seen by cyclists.

Two-way bike lanes should be positioned on the roadway with direction of flow of cyclists and adjacent car traffic being in the same direction.  This will place contra-flow cyclists horizontally farther away from the headlights of cars moving in the opposite direction lessening light impact on cyclists.

The dialogue should include such factors of one side of the street to the other as to the number of ingresses and egresses from local properties, the volume of cars turning across the two-way bike lanes, visibility of cyclists to motorists who are making turns across the bike lanes (left side visibility of motorists of parallel cyclists versus right side), and visibility of oncoming cyclists to motorists at intersections.

  • Networking

Networking of cycling facilities is a cycling traffic growth factor.  A cycling facility leading to on-street, shared cycling will only draw a smaller portion of motorists who could be induced to cycling if the cycling facilities were to their liking.

The dialogue for downtown Calgary should include the priority of SBL extending a limited cycling capacity Peace Bridge facility into the downtown core along 6th or 7th St or both.  The dialogue should also consider an option of SBL extension into the working core of downtown Calgary within the catchment area of cycling facilities to cyclists’ work places.

SBL’s along these two streets would have limited value unless the SBL were continued and networked into the downtown core and underneath the railway tracks to the shopping areas of 10th to 12th Ave and to 17th Ave.  Considering the cycling unfriendly 5th St and 8th St underpasses for potential cyclists and also cycling infrastructure catchment area, 7th St may be a more desirable street for an SBL as a first level network infrastructure.

Some grey research that I have been doing over the last 10 plus years and supported by lower-level rigour research by others would indicate that catchment area of cycling facilities tends to be from 0 metres to 500 metres (5 blocks, 2 minutes cycling).

For downtown city centrum, a catchment area of 2 blocks each side of cycling facilities is a highly desirable, first level networking design with catchment area eventually being decreased to two blocks between cycling facilities as the second level and then adjacent major streets as a third level. 

From a networking perspective, any off-road bike trails such as that along the Bow River should also have on-road bypasses as cycling traffic will built up on bike trails that will cause commuter cyclists to want to use on-road facilities from a commuting time perspective.  This factor would encourage an on-road cycling facility parallel to the Bow Trail.

Considering cycling infrastructure catchment area, the location of the Bow Trail, and the concentration of downtown workplace, a two-way SBL should be provided on 6th Ave as a first priority or alternately 5th Ave connecting with the Bow Trail via 11th St in the west and 6th Ave through the East Village at the east end.

  • Right turn or left turn prohibitions across SBL’s

The dialogue should include discussion on intersection design especially motorists’ capability for turns across SBL.  A through understanding on current motorists turning pattern needs to be had on candidate streets and alternate routing options for motorists should full or partial banning of turns occur across SBL.

Cyclists trip time, cyclist’s’ visibility, and perceived safety for potential cyclists are driving forces for intersection limitations for motorists.

Especially full prohibition or alternately no turn on red signal phase will enhance the perceived safety of SBL for potential and current cyclists.  

  • Cyclists advance timing at intersection

The dialogue should also include an alternative to banning turns across SBL

Alternately to full or partial turning for motorists at intersections, a cyclists advanced signal phase to clear backed-up cyclists at a traffic signal first before car movement starts will enhance the cyclists’ experience and the attractiveness to potential cyclists.

  • Bike boxes to accommodate turns

The dialogue should also consider how to efficiently move cyclists with high visibility to motorists from SBL to intersecting streets and also bringing cyclists from these intersecting streets to the SBL.

Coloured bike boxes (especially environmental green colour) at intersections of streets with SBL and diagonal streets is a good solution.  At some streets up to 4-coloured bike boxes may be desirable.

  • Road maintenance

The dialogue should also include housekeeping and maintenance of SBL’s.  What type of equipment should be added to the city’s arsenal and what cleaning frequency should be built into the city’s budget and maintenance procedures?

Wind tends to move dirt and garbagy materials left behind by cars and especially trucks into SBL.  Water ponding on SBL’s can be a significant problem for cyclists especially during freeze-thaw periods.

Maintenance procedures should be providing quality of cycling service that reduces the chances of tire flats for cyclist and provides for safe operation of bicycles at any speed.

  • Winter operations and snow and ice clearing

With a SBL network the desirability of cycling during rainy weather and winter increases significantly.  While initially SBL were convenient places to dump road snow, slowly these SBL’s are now being maintained throughout the winter in some cities with much more snow than Calgary and heavier snow to move with a bicycle.  In Copenhagen, the cycling facilities are cleared of snow before road lanes.  As we know now in Calgary, snow clearance on the river bike trails starts early in the morning.

Ice removal from SBL before morning commuting cycling starts is critical for making SBL desirable to potential winter cyclists.  Reduction of cyclists’ injury and associated health care costs results from such a program.

Road snow removal procedures will need to change.  Today, the procedures usually call for two or more passes with the first pushing the snow to the curb or also on the pedestrian walking facilities and then followed by a number of trucks and loading equipment to carry away the snow.  One-pass snow removal would make winter walking in Calgary much more pleasant and safer, especially for seniors and those with disabilities.

One-pass snow removal procedures are in place in many cities and may safe time, cost, and greenhouse pollution production from snow clearing trucks for Calgary.

  • Urban and streetscape form

The discussion contribution should be focused on a dialogued on SBL being a tool for shifting the appeal of downtown Calgary streets from places to avoid to people streets that attract Calgarians to spend time after 4:30 pm when the streets now become very deserted.

Various forms of separation designs can enhance the visual appeal of downtown streets and softening the austere look of 1960 designs of car-moving streets.  Street functionality can be enhanced with restricted-time, commercial drop-off zones, although neighbouring buildings should really provide that.  Bus loading zones can be designed to allow for pedestrian level crossing of SBL.  Bike parking can be built into the SBL design.  Even motorcycle and moped parking can be incorporated.

Downtown Calgary streets are already well situated for SBL with sufficient off-street parking for cars and lack of street facing retailing.  On-street parking is not required nor should not be encouraged.  In fact, SBL may encourage more street retailing.

  • Local retail business activities

Any change on a street that affects on-street parking tends to be a rallying point for retail businesses to call on city politicians to do nothing.  The reality of retail marketing, as one vice-president of a major Canadian property company once stated to a municipal council, is that retail businesses need people traffic.  People traffic is critical for retailing success.  The source of the people traffic is not that important.  Bringing cycling to a street increases retailing traffic.  One car parking spot can be converted to 10 to 14 bicycle parking.  About 80 to 100 bicycles can be parked along one side of 100 metre street block that could only accommodate up to 10 to 13 cars.  It is understandable that retailers are very reluctant to let go of the umbilical cord of car parking that is now starting to fail strip malls, which were designed for the car driving customers.  The marketing model for retailers must continually change with time along with its customers or these businesses will go bankrupt.

The influence of cycling customers and differences in purchasing capacity are now slowly being documented by researchers.  Without a car, a person has about $10,000 more available to spend each year.  Without a second car, that may be about $5,000.

The dialogue should be around how to make that happen by focusing on urban form, cycling, and combined mobility of transit and cycling.

If retailers cater their products to cyclists, then a 10-fold increase in street traffic is a potential.  With retailers offering the right product mix, people will cycle to stores.

  • Congestion

Dialogue would be worthwhile to explore this further.  The usual “NO, do not change anything from a car-oriented street” argument is that congestion will increase, meaning car congestion not cycling growth, transit growth, or walking growth, all of which should happen.

“Car congestion is good” is an argument used by some people.  It is argued that congestion or any other type of roadblock, which could include increased car trip time  due to car congestion, more car collisions and negative impacts to personal health, finances, obesity, and health during the aging process, causes people to consider which transportation alternative is in their best interest.

For people to make the transition from car transportation to another mode the infrastructure must be there and to a level that is appealing to them to make a change.  This includes peak and off-peak transit capacity and service level, combined mobility capacity whether it is car-cycling or transit-cycling supported by cycling infrastructure from home to local rapid transit and high service bus routes, safe and dependable bike parking in all weather, and a cycling network that is appealing from home to final destination including for commuting.

Introduction of SBL on a road should be with expectation and target that car traffic will reduce as a result of people make the shift in transportation mode from car-based, not as a facility that is being imposed on top of a car traffic level that will continue to increase in the future.

  • The final direction

With extensive dialogue, it will be become very apparent that downtown Calgary needs a network of connected SBL’s as another tool for reducing driving into the downtown core and reducing already beyond acceptable and historically high levels of greenhouse pollution.  

Back in the 1970’s, people wanted to come to Calgary for health reasons since allergies, sinus discomforts and health side effects improved for them.  Now these sufferers look for other cities to improve their health:  even in January, brown pollution clouds can be seen on Nose Hill, with much contribution from the high level of driving in the city.

With carefully thought-out design parameters for SBL and the resulting reduction of driving, the downtown core will become more of a people place  after business hours, increase downtown retailing, increase vitality of the city core, and will be more of a place to attract tourists beyond the Stampede.

Yes, it is a first phase in the introduction of public bike sharing system, as Paris proved so successfully.


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